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Emeralds in Québec?

Daniel Bandyayera and Geneviève Robert,
Bureau de l'exploration géologique du Québec

What is an emerald?

Emerald is a variety of beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18) and is the third most valuable gemstone, after diamond and ruby (Groat et al., 2008). Emerald's green color is caused by trace amounts of chromium (Cr) or vanadium (V) in the beryl structure, which normally contains none. Other gemstones also come from beryl, the best-known being the blue variety, aquamarine.

Why are emeralds rare?

Beryl is a relatively rare mineral because there is very little beryllium (Be) in the earth’s crust. It is found in small amounts in granites and pegmatites (Groat et al., 2005). Emerald, a variety of beryl, is rarer still. In addition to the presence of beryllium (Be), emeralds require a sufficient amount of Cr or V during crystallization. These two elements are nearly as rare as beryllium in the earth's crust and even rarer in granites. In addition, the three elements generally come from different magma sources (Marshall et al., 2003). Cr and V are normally found in mafic or ultramafic rocks and their metamorphic equivalents, that is, rocks very low in silica, while Be generally is found in rock known as "evolved," meaning very rich in silica, such as granites and pegmatites.

Conditions conducive to emerald formation

The classic model of emerald formation is exactly those conditions under which evolved rocks (granites and pegmatites) interact with mafic or ultramafic rocks (Groat et al., 2008). The necessary conditions for emerald formation are, however, extremely complex. The "interaction" between the two source reservoirs must occur through hydrothermal fluids. Hydrothermal fluids are hot water that can carry dissolved Be, Cr, or V from their source to the location of emerald crystallization. These fluids must generally be present when the granites, pegmatites, or mafic or ultramafic rocks are deposited, or else when they are metamorphosed. The fluids travel through naturally occurring pores in the rock or along flaws or cracks. As they do so they "wash out" the Be, Cr, or V contained in the rock and carry it elsewhere. When these elements all come together, the chances of emerald formation is increased.

There are also celebrated examples of emerald-rich deposits (e.g., in Colombia ) that differ from the classic model in that they occur without magmatic activity and use an alternative source of Cr (i.e., black shales instead of mafic or ultramafic rocks). These other types of deposits illustrate the complexity of the conditions under which emeralds can form, but also show that emerald exploration should not be limited by the conditions described above.

Emeralds in Canada

The Canadian Northwest hosts three occurrences of emerald and several of beryl (Groat et al., 2005), making the Yukon, the western Northwest Territories, and northern British Columbia good targets for beryl and emerald exploration. The only other occurrence of emerald recorded in Canada is the Ghost Lake occurrence in western Ontario. The beryl and emerald crystals at Ghost Lake are found in pegmatites intruded into a chlorite schist unit (metamorphic mafic rock) adjacent to an altered ultramafic intrusion (Groat et al., 2005). In the case of Ghost Lake, beryl and emerald formation is associated with host rock metamorphism, which released the elements necessary for their formation (Be, Cr, or V).

What about Québec?

Presently, there are no known emerald deposits in Québec, because little exploration for this type of mineral is conducted. However, geological systems conducive to beryl and emerald formation are known in Québec. The Réservoir Opinaca region, for example, hosts a thick sequence of metasedimentary migmatites (rocks formed through the partial fusion of sedimentary rocks—these rocks are generally evolved) as well as numerous pegmatites. The region also hosts several ultramafic intrusions of varying sizes. This juxtaposition of potentially large reservoirs of chromium (e.g., ultramafic rocks) and evolved rocks (e.g., migmatites or pegmatites) is a setting that can be conducive to emerald formation.

References

Groat, L.A. , Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., Turner, D. (2008). "Emerald deposits and occurrences: a review." Ore Geology Reviews 34 , 87–112.

Groat, L.A. , Hart, C.J.R., Lewis, L.L., Neufeld, H.L.D. (2005). "Emerald and aquamarine mineralization in Canada ." Geoscience Canada 32 , 65–76.

Marshall , D.D., Groat, L., Giuliani, G., Murphy, D., Mattey, D., Ercit, T.S., Wise, M.A., Wengzynowski, W., Eaton, W.D. (2003). "Pressure, temperature, and fluid conditions during emerald precipitation, southeastern Yukon , Canada : fluid inclusion and stable isotope evidence." Chemical Geology 194, 187–199.


Québec's Mineral Potential Assessment Earns Food Grades

Daniel Lamothe

Considerable side benefits

The report card for Québec’s mineral potential assessment program for the period 2005 to 2008 is extremely encouraging. Since 2005, 850 exploration targets have been defined and over 3,500 related mining titles recorded. This activity generated direct and indirect side benefits of $210,000 in fees and at least $440,000 in documented exploration activity.

A product that has evolved over the years

Since 2005, mineral potential assessment maps (Table 1) have been produced using ArcGIS software, various metallogenic models, and a number of spatial analysis methods. The metallogenic models involved include

  1. volcanogenic massive sulphide in Abitibi (EP 2005-01);
  2. orogenic gold in Abitibi (EP 2006-01) and Baie-James (EP 2008-01);
  3. porphyritic Cu-Au-Mo deposits in Abitibi (EP 2006-03) and Baie-James (EP 2009-01).

The spatial analysis method most widely used at present consists of empirically weighting each parameter using what is known as the "weight of evidence" technique and combining the weighted maps by means of fuzzy logic (Lamothe et al., 2005; Lamothe, 2008, 2009). In one case, a radial basis function neural network method was utilized (Lamothe and Harris, 2006).

Since the earliest potential assessment studies were published, product format has changed considerably. Between 2000 and 2004, spatial analysis of geo-data was carried out on the MGE platform using a relatively simplistic method of integrating geologic data. This process produced nine annotated maps at a scale of 1:250,000. Three maps of Abitibi (Figure 1a) address potential volcanogenic massive sulphide. Six maps of easternmost Grenville address potential Olympic Dam–Kiruna-type deposits. Lastly, a kimberlite discovery potential study in Québec’s Great North was also conducted (Labbé, 2002). Results for all except the last study are available as e-Atlas modules in the SIGÉOM database (product type PO2), in TIFF format. Selected studies are also available on CD-ROM with methodological text and digital data.

Table 1
List of publications on CD-ROM covering Québec potential assessment
(see Figure 1b)

Product

Description

EP 2001-01

Lamothe, D. and Beaumier, M., 2001, Évaluation du potentiel régional en minéralisations de type Olympic Dam-Kiruna dans la région du lac Manitou (SNRC 22I).

EP 2002-01

Lamothe, D. and Beaumier, M., 2002, Évaluation du potentiel régional en minéralisations de type Olympic Dam-Kiruna dans la région du lac Fournier (SNRC 22P).

EP 2002-04

Dion, C. and Lamothe, D., 2002, Évaluation du potentiel en minéralisations de sulfures massifs volcanogènes de la région de Chibougamau (32G) Intégration de géodonnées par la technologie d’analyse spatiale.

EP 2002-05

Labbé, J.-Y., 2002, Évaluation du potentiel de découverte de kimberlites dans la région du Grand Nord du Québec – Intégration de géodonnées par la technologie d’analyse spatiale.

EP 2005-01
(EP 2005-02)

Lamothe, D.; Harris, J.R.; Labbé, J.-Y.; Doucet, P.; Houle, P.; and Moorhead, J., 2005, Assessment of the Potential for Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide (VMS) Deposits in Abitibi.

EP 2006-01
(EP 2006-02)

Lamothe, D. and Harris, J.R, 2006, Assessment of the Potential for Orogenic Gold in the Archean Rock of Abitibi.

EP 2006-03
(EP 2007-01)

Labbé, J.-Y.; Pilote, P.; and Lamothe, D., 2006, Assessment of the Potential for Porphyritic Cu-Au-Mo Deposits in Abitibi.

EP 2008-01
(EP 2008-02)

Lamothe, D., 2008, Assessment of the Potential for Orogenic Gold-type Deposits in Baie-James.

EP 2009-01
(EP 2009-02)

Lamothe, D., 2009, Assessment of the Potential for Porphyritic Cu-Au-Mo Deposits in Baie-James. (forthcoming, March 2009)

Product numbers in parentheses refer to English-language versions. These documents are available in EXAMINE and include methodological text, digital data and, in the most recent case, an Access database documenting known targets.


An Update on Uranium Exploration in Québec

By Pierre Lacoste and Patrice Roy
Bureau de l’exploration géologique du Québec
Direction générale de Géologie Québec

After over twenty-odd years of relative inactivity, uranium exploration in Québec exploded in 2007 following a spectacular increase in the price of uranium. Interest in uranium exploration held steady throughout 2008, despite falling prices on the world market. The metal’s popularity is directly related to its price on the spot market, which peaked at over US$130 per pound in June 2007. Since this historic summit, the price of uranium has dropped, as with most metals. The spot market for uranium makes up around 15% of the market, with the remaining 85% of transactions taking the form of long term contracts, generally for more than the spot price (Sidex, 2004).

The price of uranium on the spot market, 1995–2008

The price of uranium on the spot market, 1995–2008
(Source: Ux Weekly)

As things stand, the uranium produced by active mines is not enough to meet world demand. Other sources of uranium are therefore required. Even taking other sources of uranium into account—such as nuclear disarmament—uranium production will have to increase by more than 20,000 tons per year to meet demand for the next ten years.

Uranium production and reactor consumption in the West

Uranium production and reactor consumption in the West
(Source: World Nuclear Association)

In Canada, uranium production is largely concentrated in the province of Saskatchewan, the world’s No. 1 uranium producer. Québec is still at the exploration stage and has no uranium mines in service. The various stages of exploration work are long, laborious, and expensive. Uranium exploration costs amounted to only a few thousand dollars in 2000 and have since shot up from $1.3 million in 2004 to $70.9 million in 2007.

Cost of Uranium Exploration
and Development in Québec

Year

2004

2005

2006

2007

Costs (M$)

1.3

4.3

22.0

70.9

Source : Raymond Beullac, Institut de la statistique du Québec

These costs were spread across a number of projects mainly in the sedimentary basin of the Monts Otish (northeast of Chibougamau), in the Baie-James region, eastern Nunavik (in the Core Zone), in the metasedimentary rocks of the Torngat Orogen, and in the Grenville series, particularly in the Côte-Nord region (Baie-Johan-Beetz– Aguanish). Work in the Témiscamingue (Kipawa sector), Outaouais (Gatineau sector), and Laurentides regions (Mont-Laurier) was either minor or nonexistent.

Growth Sectors

Currently, the most sought-after and promising sectors for uranium exploration are the Monts Otish basin, the Baie-James region, and the area south of Ungava Bay and the Torngats. The geological background of each of these sectors was outlined in the February 2007 edition of Québec mines. The latest results are summarized in the paragraphs below.

Otish Mountains

In the Otish Mountains, over 20 projects or targets are being worked on by various exploration companies, notably major companies Cameco and Areva-Québec and junior companies such as Strateco Resources Inc., Dios Exploration Inc., and Majescor. The uranium potential of the Otish Mountains sector has been known for several years, and a number of indicators are typical of unconformity-related uranium deposits, as in Saskatchewan. Nonetheless, the project that has made most headway in Québec—Strateco Resources’s Matoush Project—involves type-U uranium deposits in veins associated with shear zones. The deposit contains indicated resources of 250,000 tons at 0.68% U3O8 and inferred resources of 1.3 Mt at 0.44% U3O8. The company has completed an opportunity study and plans to carry out an underground exploration program within the next year.

The Core Zone of the Nouveau-Québec and Torngat Orogens

This zone is uncharted territory for uranium exploration. It was thrust into the spotlight following the discovery of zones of anomalous uranium values in lake-bottom sediment sampled by the Ministry in 1997. The Core Zone (formerly known as Churchill or Rae Province) forms the basement of eastern Nunavik. It is largely composed of Archean to Mesoproterozoic tonalitic gneiss, granitoids, and mafic intrusions. Veins and dikes of granitic pegmatite cut across the Archean basement of the Core Zone and the rocks of the Nouveau-Québec and Torngat orogens. The vast territory covered by the eastern portion of Nunavik, east of the Labrador Trough, is fertile ground for various types of uranium mineralization.

Mineralization associated with Rössing-type pegmatites appears to be the most promising. Azimut Exploration Inc. has identified a number of anomalous kilometer-scale zones. Analysis of rock samples has returned uranium values of more than 1,000 ppm (0.1% U3O8), and the best grades were 0.59%, 0.57%, 0.46%, 0.3%, and 0.65% U3O8, with grab samples registering up to 3.3% U3O8. Further south, on the Rivière Georges property, which is made up of claim blocks scattered between Rivière Georges and the Québec–Labrador border, Freewest Resources Canada has uncovered four uranium showings. This uranium mineralization falls within the granitic pegmatite dikes that crisscross the gneissic basement of the Core Zone. The mineralized zone is close to 2.6 km long and 700 m wide. The best values obtained were 0.453% and 0.132% U3O8 in grab samples from the Stewart Lake Trend property. Areva-Québec’s CAGE project uncovered grading of up to 8.13% U3O8 in a grab sample, and channel sampling registered 0.45% over 1 meter. Other targets were also sampled.

Other Sectors Highlighted by Lake-Bottom Anomalies

A number of other hotspots were also identified in the Baie-James region, particularly in the Apple sector, in environments conducive to the discovery of unconformity-related uranium deposits or uranium-bearing veins. For instance, the pyrite uranium conglomerates in the Apple showing are being worked on by Virginia Mines and Strateco Resources. Further east, Midland Exploration and Quest Uranium have found high grading in grab samples. Uranium mineralization is also often associated with granitic pegmatites cutting through the gneiss or in granitic mobilisate.

In central and northern Québec (Bienville and Lac Minto), Azimut Exploration Inc. is carrying out various types of geophysical and geochemical work and prospecting various anomalies and targets. The results indicate grades of up to 0.32% U3O8 for samples and grading as high as 0.90% U3O8. A number of targets were also identified using lake-bottom geochemistry. These sectors offer fresh potential and land in the search for uranium.

Côte-Nord

The uranium potential of the Côte-Nord region has been known since the late 1970s. Most work dates back a number of years, but exploration activity has increased in this sector, particularly since the price of uranium has risen. Work is mainly concentrated in the Baie Johan-Beetz–Aguanish area, where there are a number of deposits with historic resources (not in compliance with Standard 43-101). Work was recently performed in the sector by Azimut Exploration Inc., Kennecott, and D’Arianne Resources, among others. Grading of up to 0.43% U3O8 and significant quantities of rare earth were noted in a pegmatite. Double S, a Uracan-owned deposit in the Baie-Johan-Beetz sector, has 74 Mt of resources at 0.012% U3O8. Moreover, other showings have come to light further north, thanks to lake-bottom sediment and airborne radiometric anomalies. Grab samples notably reported grades of up to 0.33% U3O8. And in the Sept-Îles Nord sector, the most talked-about deposit is held by Terra Ventures at Lac Kachiwiss. This deposit contains 18.3 Mt of historic resources (not in compliance with Standard 43-101) at 0.015% U3O8. The company recently drilled to check historic resources and carried out airborne geophysical work to gauge the potential of neighboring areas.

Most known deposits in the Côte-Nord region are associated with granitic pegmatites. They are heavy, low grade mineralizations related to the type found in the Rössing Mine in Namibia, which with a 300 Mt deposit at 0.03% U3O8, is the world’s fourth biggest uranium mine. In the Côte-Nord region, there are also iron oxide-type deposits with uranium, copper, and gold associations, as with the Kwijibo showing. Once again, this type of deposit has the potential to produce huge deposits with low grades. For example, the Olympic Dam deposit in Australia is estimated to contain 2,000 Mt, including 1.4 Mt of U3O8 at a grade of 0.06%, making it the world’s largest uranium deposit.

Ministère des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune uses a cut-off point of at least 425 ppm U (500 ppm or 0.05% U3O8 [uranium oxide]) to identify uranium showings. In order to support uranium exploration, Direction générale de Géologie Québec has published a special edition map, last updated in January 2007, entitled "Uranium in the Secondary Environment and Uranium Mineralizations." The map highlights the geochemistry of lake-bottom and stream sediments as well as known mineralizations contained in the SIGÉOM database. Further geochemical and radiometric surveys have since been conducted in Québec. Their results will be published in 2009.


Québec Mineral Exploration and Development Highlights

James Moorhead, Raymond Beullac, and Pierre Doucet

Since last year, the annual report on mineral exploration in Québec has been available free of charge in PDF format on the MRNF website.

This report includes

  • A summary of mineral exploration and development highlights
  • An overview and description of various exploration projects (e.g., diamonds, base and precious metals) by geological province and administrative region
  • A description of architectural stone, industrial mineral, industrial stone, and peat mining and exploration projects
  • A description of Géologie Québec’s geoscience projects
  • The location of producing mines and architectural stone quarries in Québec

2007–2008 highlights

In the last five years, Québec has benefited from a highly favorable investment climate for mineral exploration. As of January 8, 2009, there were over 264,000 active mining titles in Québec for a total area of 12 million hectares—a new record. A map showing the distribution of Québec mining titles can be found at the following at GESTIM.

According to data collected by Institut de la statistique du Québec, exploration and development expenditures in Québec have topped $200 million in each of the last five years: $227 million in 2004, $205 million in 2005, $295 million in 2006, and $476 million in 2007.

Exploration and development expenditures
in $M in Québec
Substances
2004
2005
2006
2007
Precious metals 135 115.6 145.4 225.9
Base metals 57 53 70.8 118.3
Diamond 28 22.8 29 26.9
Ferrous metals 0.,3 1.4 22.2 29.2
Uranium 1.4 4.3 22 70.9
Others 5.5 8 5.7 5.1
         
Total ($M) 227.2 205.1 295.1 476.3

As of April 2008, the 2007 annual survey predicted updated exploration and development spending intentions of $571 million. The boom quickly evaporated in June, however, following the crash in metal prices, except gold, and in the wake of the world financial crisis. Nonetheless, the 2008 preliminary survey still shows exploration and development expenditures of $450 million. For 2009, however, spending intentions have fallen to $250 million.

The results of the 2007 annual survey show that approximately 200 mining establishments reported conducting, as project manager, exploration or development activities in Québec: 22 major ($97 million) and 178 junior ($375 million) companies, including government corporations ($4 million). Junior companies were headquartered in Québec (49%), British Columbia (22%), Ontario (19%), and elsewhere in Canada or outside the country (11%).

Exploration and development activities were primarily aimed at precious metals, particularly gold ($225.9 million, 47.4%), base metals ($118.3 million, 24.8%), uranium ($70.9 million, 14.9%), ferrous metals ($29.2 million, 6.1%), and diamonds ($26.9 million, 5.6%). Two notable developments in the most recent up cycle were spectacular increases in exploration expenditures for uranium (from $1.4 to $70.9 million) and ferrous metals ($0.3 to $29.2 million) between 2004 and 2007.

Exploration and development work in 2007 took place mainly in three specific Québec regions: Nord-du-Québec ($269.3 million, 56.5%), Abitibi-Témiscamingue ($148.5 million, 31.6%), and Côte-Nord ($39.3 million, 8.2%).


Exclusive MEGATEM II surveys for Abitibi unveiled!

Ministère des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune (MRNF), in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Canada, is set to publish a number of MEGATEM II surveys in order to spur mineral exploration in the Abitibi subprovince. The MEGATEM II surveys will be released on Friday, February 27, at 1 p.m., just before the PDAC (Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada) convention gets underway.

In all, 16 MEGATEM II surveys of the Abitibi region’s volcanic-sedimentary belts have been or will be made public—that’s 85,255 km of flight lines and over 30,000 geophysical anomalies. The batch to be unveiled in late February totals 33 NTS sheets, in whole or in part, of the eastern and southern Abitibi regions. A first batch of eight NTS sheets covering the northwestern part of the Abitibi region was released at the 2008 Québec Exploration Convention. The surveys, which are courtesy of Xstrata and Virginia Mines, have an estimated combined value of $8.9 million.

Digital data and interpretation cards for the MEGATEM II surveys will be simultaneously made available via Système d’information géominière du Québec, public records (DP 2008-03 to DP 2008-38 for the cards, and DP 2008-40 and DP 2008-41 for the digital data), and Natural Resources Canada’s Geoscientific Data Repository.


MRNF takes part in the PDAC Convention

This year once again, the Ministère des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune (MRNF) will be a prominent presence at the Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) Convention, scheduled for March 1 to 4, in Toronto. Occupying an impressive 1,400 square foot exhibition area, MRNF and its partners will pursue their mission of promoting Québec’s mineral potential. To this end, the MRNF team will have the help of a dozen experienced presenters including field geologists and the authors of numerous geoscientific works. The presenting team will use the latest communication technology to deliver the necessary information on what Québec has to offer. They will discuss:

  • new exploration targets;
  • the latest geophysical and geochemical surveys conducted in the province;
  • how to obtain mining rights;
  • Québec mining taxes;
  • the regulations for site rehabilitation.

A lounge area will be set up where you can talk about the benefits of Québec mineral exploration in a relaxed atmosphere over a cappuccino or espresso. We look forward to meeting you at the MRNF-Mines exhibition area. If you’ve got questions, we’ve got the answers.


École de terrain Abitibi2009
Building on successs

Robert Maquis and Sylvain Lacroix, Ministère des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune
Denis
Bois, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue
Alain Cheilletz,
ENSG-INPL, France

Ministère des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune (MRNF) and Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue (UQAT) set up a field school in 2008 to promote the recruitment of qualified geologists who would be in a position to rapidly and effectively meet the needs of the mining industry. According to everyone concerned, the field school was a big success. As in 2008, École de terrain Abitibi 2009 is intended for geology students about to graduate from French-language universities outside Québec, with the goal of developing common skills in applied geology. École nationale supérieure de géologie de Nancy in France will contribute its know-how in this field and will be the bridgehead for recruiting students.

École de terrain Abitibi 2009 provides two weeks of courses plus a three-month internship. Students will first take the UQAT North American field geology course—GNM-1101 GÉOLOGIE DE TERRAIN EN CONTEXTE NORD-AMÉRICAIN—from May 10 to 22, 2009. This course aims to develop the students’ practical know-how through exercises supervised by professionals from MRNF and UQAT. Exercises in the field are an excellent educational tool from both a technical and motivational point of view because they give the students the opportunity to experience the geological, economic, and sociological realities around them.

Field training is given in the form of workshops and individual exercises covering themes specific to Abitibi: volcanism and base metal deposits, orogenic and plutonic gold deposits, geophysics applied to exploration, and superficial Quaternary formations. Particular emphasis is put on health and safety, transportation, communications, traverses, and positioning. Students will be evaluated and will earn academic credit.

Internships offered by mining exploration companies operating in Québec and by MRNF will take place from May 23 to August 21. Students will be able to familiarize themselves with Québec geology and what it is like to work as a geologist in the province. Six (6) of the (12) students who completed the 2008 field school have begun their professional careers in Québec.

Partner firms help fund the field school, which is also supported by Emploi-Québec. A number of companies have joined this industrial learning adventure. Hurry! There are only a few places left.


A look back on Québec Exploration 2008

In 2008, AEMQ and Géologie Québec (MRNF) joined forces in organizing a convention to exceed the expectations of all mining industry stakeholders. Québec Exploration 2008 took place November 24 to 27 at Québec's Château Frontenac.

Again this year, the organizing committee had the assistance of numerous qualified stakeholders and long-time partners in planning an exceptional program ranging over various aspects of mineral, petroleum, and gas exploration.

A total of 179 trade and scientific exhibitors took part in the convention. The numerous participants were treated to an outstanding program of presentations touching on new mining, petroleum, and gas discoveries, the financial outlook, partnerships with aboriginal communities, and Québec’s 400 years of mining exploration history.

Québec Exploration’s 2008 edition set a new record for participation, to the delight of the organizing committee: 2,036 registered participants including 250 from the general public for open house day.

In spite of the difficult financial context, registrations for Québec Exploration 2008 surpassed those for 2007, which had been the busiest year ever.

The convention gave Géologie Québec (MRNF) an opportunity to present the results of its work acquiring and processing new geoscientific data, allowing over a hundred new mining exploration targets to be highlighted.

The event also saw the launch of two prestigious books, destined to become classics within the worldwide geoscientific community:

  • Géologie des ressources minérales (MM 2008-01) by Michel Jebrak (UQAM) and Éric Marcoux (U. d’Orléans). Nearly 700 pages in length, this imposing volume, written in French and copiously illustrated, is sure to become a basic reference for all French-speaking geologists in search of new mining deposits.
  • Synthèse du Nord-Est de la province du Supérieur (MM 2008-02). This synthesis contains the results of the largest cartographic project ever seen in Québec. Mapping the Grand Nord Québécois was conducted over seven consecutive years from 1998 to 2004, involving over 270 people in 21 projects.

Québec Exploration 2008 has barely come to a close, and the organizing committee is already hard at work on the 2009 program. We enthusiastically invite you to mark the cify of Québec, November 23 to 26 in your calendar for Québec Exploration 2009.

To find out more, the Québec Exploration 2009 website will be available soon.